Sexism

 

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Definitions

Wikipedia

 

Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the individuals.

Sexism can refer to subtly different beliefs or attitudes:

  • The belief that one sex is superior to or more valuable than the other;
  • The belief that one gender is superior to or more valuable than the other;
  • Female or male chauvinism
  • The attitude of misogyny (hatred of females) or misandry (hatred of males); as well as
  • The attitude of imposing a limited and/or false notion of masculinity on males and a limited and/or false notion of femininity on females, or vice versa.
  • A feeling of distrust towards the opposite sex, most frequently operating at unconscious level.
 

Sexism against Females

Sexism against females in its extreme form is known as "misogyny", which means "hatred of females". The term 'sexism', in common usage, usually implies "sexism against females", since this is the first form of sexism that has been commonly identified. This form of sexism is also often called chauvinism, though chauvinism is actually a wider term for any extreme and unreasoning partisanship with malice and hatred towards a rival group. A mildly related term is "gynophobia", which refers to fears of females or feminity.

Historically, in all societies, females were viewed as the "weaker sex". Women's lower status is evident in cases in which females were not even recognized as "people" under the law of the land. The feminist movement promotes women's rights to stop sexism against females by addressing issues such as equality under the law, political representation of females, access to education and employment, female victims of domestic violence, how increasingly available pornography hurts women, and self-ownership of the female body.

Sexism against Males

Sexism against males in its extreme form is known as "misandry", which means "hatred of males". Since this is the second form of sexism that has been commonly identified, it is often known as "reverse sexism." A mildly related term is "androphobia", which refers to the fear of males or masculinity. While the view that women are superior to men is also sexism, only in recent years has such awareness begun to develop in public discourse.

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